This searchable database contains bibliographic information for literature (research-based and policy/practice) relating to dispute resolution in special education.

CADRE is interested in identifying additional articles and publications to include in this database. If you are aware of other such resources, please send an email to with as much information as possible about the resource (e.g., title, author, source, date), and include a copy of the publication or a URL link, if available.  Interested in emerging research and knowledge gaps in IDEA dispute resolution?

Facilitated IEP meetings help special education students.

The article reports on the significance of facilitated Individual Education Plans(IEP) meetings among parents of special education students and representatives of Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools in Nashville, Tennessee. Often IEP meetings conclude to heated arguments, Spectrum K12 School...Learn more

Facilitated IEP meetings: An emerging practice.

To help special education planning teams reach agreements, several State Education Agencies (SEAs) provide the option of facilitated Individualized Education Program (IEP) meetings. The use of externally facilitated IEP meetings is growing nationally. When relationships between parents and schools...Learn more

Families and schools: Resolving disputes through mediation.

This publication attempts to answer common questions that parents, teachers, administrators, and others have about mediation as a means of resolving conflicts between parents of a child with a disability and the school district. Four real life stories are used to show how experienced mediators use...Learn more

Family perceptions of student centered planning and IEP meetings.

Given the documented benefits of family involvement in educational planning, engaging families throughout the school years is strongly advocated. However, barriers continue to impede families from collaborative partnering in educational planning. In this qualitative study the perceptions of six...Learn more

Family-school conflict: implications for the family.

Family responses to family-school conflicts may be manifested in family interaction and/or work performance and are influenced by numerous factors including socioeconomic status, child's grade level, family structure, cultural background, financial or structural stress, and rigidity of functioning...Learn more

Framing the Future: SelfDetermination

This article offers reflections and recommendations on self-determination of students with disabilities. [Abstract] "There is an established and still-growing evidence base that promoting self-determination has positive school and post-school benefits for students with disabilities, and yet efforts...Learn more

Frequency Trends in the State Complaint Procedures Under the IDEA

Introduction: One of the most active areas of litigation in K-12 education is in special education, an area of litigation that has risen steadily since the 1980s. While the primary focus for analyzing litigation trends has been court cases, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)...Learn more

Frequently asked questions (FAQs) on mediation.

This publication has been developed by the Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE) to respond to the host of questions that many parents, teachers, administrators, and others have about mediation. From basic questions such as, "What is mediation?" and "How does it...Learn more