This searchable database contains bibliographic information for literature (research-based and policy/practice) relating to dispute resolution in special education.

CADRE is interested in identifying additional articles and publications to include in this database. If you are aware of other such resources, please send an email to with as much information as possible about the resource (e.g., title, author, source, date), and include a copy of the publication or a URL link, if available.  Interested in emerging research and knowledge gaps in IDEA dispute resolution?

Developing student competence in self-directed IEPs.

Self-directed Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) allow students to assume leadership and become actively involved in the decisions made at their IEP meetings. This article describes how through direct instruction, social skills discussion, active practice, and role-playing students are...Learn more

Developing your child's IEP. A parent's guide.

This guide for parents of children with disabilities explains the basics of the special education process focusing on parent participation in the process of developing the child's individualized education program (IEP). The first section reviews the IEP process including what is involved, the IEP...Learn more

Disability and the Education System

[Summary in journal] Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system in the United States from its origins in the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century. They note the dual character of federal legislation, which both guarantees eligible children with disabilities...Learn more

Dispute resolution: A review of systems in selected states.

This report discusses findings of a study that investigated the resolution of disputes in the field of special education. Information was collected from ten states (Alabama, California, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming) on their current dispute...Learn more

Divorce mediation: Research and reflections.

Mediation and other forms of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) grew rapidly in the last few decades as a result of high divorce rates, frequent conflicts between parting parents, the resulting administrative burden on courts, and especially concerns about damaging effects on children and...Learn more

Due process hearings under the IDEA.

The primary purpose of this article is to track the trend in the number of due process hearings that have been adjudicated (i.e., in which the hearing officer issued a written decision) nationally for the past 15 years. The secondary purpose is to rank order the states by the number of adjudicated...Learn more

Due process hearings: 2001 update. Quick Turn Around (QTA).

This brief report presents state data from 10 years (1991-2000) on the number of special education due process hearings requested and the number actually held. It notes requirements for designing and conducting due process hearings under both federal (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)...Learn more

Due process hearings: An update. Final report

This report presents data from all 50 states on due process hearings concerning the education of students with disabilities for the years 1992, 1993, and 1994. Data were gathered from a 1996 survey conducted by the National Association of State Directors of Special Education. This survey updates...Learn more

Due Process Rights

The Reauthorized IDEA (1997) clarifies parties' due process rights. The full text of the 1997 IDEA is at /resources/literature-article/procedural-safeguards-background-text-office-special-education-programs . Perhaps the best document for enhancing your understanding of due process rights under...Learn more