This searchable database contains bibliographic information for literature (research-based and policy/practice) relating to dispute resolution in special education.

CADRE is interested in identifying additional articles and publications to include in this database. If you are aware of other such resources, please send an email to with as much information as possible about the resource (e.g., title, author, source, date), and include a copy of the publication or a URL link, if available.  Interested in emerging research and knowledge gaps in IDEA dispute resolution?

ADA Mediation Guidelines

The ADA Mediation Guidelines for mediation providers are the product of a national Work Group convened to develop mediation practice Guidelines unique to conflicts arising under the Americans with Disabilities Act and to assist mediators to understand how to make mediations in any context...Learn more

Adjudicative Remedies for Denials of FAPE under the IDEA

This article analyzes cases in which courts or hearing officers have found that a child has been denied free and appropriate public education. The two most commonly-ordered remedies were reimbursement of tuition, and compensatory education. The author engages six questions: (1) What is the relative...Learn more

ADR: To be or…?

Article analyzes success of mediation, arbitration, summary jury trials in general. Most studies cited did not relate to special ed mediation but might be useful to inform methodology of future studies. Article reports some data on special ed mediations, finding higher correlation with parental...Learn more

Advocating for Students With Disabilities at the School Level

[Abstract] The article discusses school and classroom level advocacy for special needs students, and provides advice for special education teachers on how to effectively advocate for their students to receive needed services and interventions. An overview of professional advocacy standards and the...Learn more

After a due process hearing, then what?

The purpose of this article is to discuss issues that can surface after a special education due process hearing. These include discontent, disagreement, and dissatisfaction. The author provides suggestions for school administrators for overcoming these barriers.Learn more

Alabama APR/SPP Dispute Resolution Data - Part C

The following reports are available for this state: AL DR Summary 0913073pdf includes data from years 2003-2004, 2004-2005 & 2005-2006. Displayed for each year are the child count (ages 3 to 21, December 1 count), percent of school age served (ages 6 to 17), and reported and calculated values...Learn more

All Areas of Suspected Disability

Abstract: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires school districts to assess children “in all areas of suspected disability.” It further provides that each child’s individualized education program (IEP) must contain measurable annual goals designed to “meet each of the child...Learn more

Alternative dispute resolution and agency costs.

This research examines consumer choices of alternative dispute resolution in light of the various costs and benefits associated with each of those choices. An agency theoretic framework is employed to model the buyer-dispute resolver dyad in terms of a principal and agent relationship. Costs of...Learn more

Alternative dispute resolution: Panacea or anathema?

Article consists of mostly early theory about effectiveness of mediation. Author believes that special ed. disputes are one of the more appropriate contexts for mediation. Cites Singer & Nace study and states that special ed. mediation is successful in resolving the majority of these disputes,...Learn more

An analysis of judicial outcomes of special education cases.

A review of special-education court cases found that, while school district wins exceeded parent wins in due process hearings and appeals, the margin narrowed through litigation. The most predominant issue in dispute was placement in terms of parents seeking more restrictive settings. The Supreme...Learn more