This searchable database contains bibliographic information for literature (research-based and policy/practice) relating to dispute resolution in special education.

CADRE is interested in identifying additional articles and publications to include in this database. If you are aware of other such resources, please send an email to with as much information as possible about the resource (e.g., title, author, source, date), and include a copy of the publication or a URL link, if available.

A Comprehensive Comparison of the IDEA and Section 504/ADA

This document provides a comparison of the student-related similarities and differences between IDEA and two related acts, Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Comparisons are provided in tabular format, with the three acts across the top and...Learn more

A mediation strategy for special education disputes.

Addresses the successes and challenges associated with mediation in special education disputes in Missouri. Reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in June 1997 and National Association of State Disorders of Special Education's studies on mediationLearn more

Adjudicative Remedies for Denials of FAPE under the IDEA

This article analyzes cases in which courts or hearing officers have found that a child has been denied free and appropriate public education. The two most commonly-ordered remedies were reimbursement of tuition, and compensatory education. The author engages six questions: (1) What is the relative...Learn more

ADR: To be or…?

Article analyzes success of mediation, arbitration, summary jury trials in general. Most studies cited did not relate to special ed mediation but might be useful to inform methodology of future studies. Article reports some data on special ed mediations, finding higher correlation with parental...Learn more

All Areas of Suspected Disability

Abstract: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires school districts to assess children “in all areas of suspected disability.” It further provides that each child’s individualized education program (IEP) must contain measurable annual goals designed to “meet each of the child...Learn more

Alternative dispute resolution: Panacea or anathema?

Article consists of mostly early theory about effectiveness of mediation. Author believes that special ed. disputes are one of the more appropriate contexts for mediation. Cites Singer & Nace study and states that special ed. mediation is successful in resolving the majority of these disputes,...Learn more

An analysis of judicial outcomes of special education cases.

A review of special-education court cases found that, while school district wins exceeded parent wins in due process hearings and appeals, the margin narrowed through litigation. The most predominant issue in dispute was placement in terms of parents seeking more restrictive settings. The Supreme...Learn more

Analysis of Special Education Mediations in Texas, 2006-08

The purpose of this study was to explore variables which might influence the frequency of Texas special education mediations used for dispute resolution. Variables such as district size, location, economic level, and the State Accountability Rating were investigated and evaluated. In order to...Learn more

Are published IDEA hearing officer decisions representative?

The authors of this study examined published hearing officer decisions under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to determine whether they were representative of the frequency and outcomes for the larger group consisting of published decisions and the much greater number of unpublished...Learn more