In the event that either the processes or outcomes associated with procedural safeguards do not provide participants with satisfaction or sufficient closure, additional legal avenues may be pursued.

Some states have opted to implement a two-tier hearing process in which the initial hearing takes place at the local – usually school district – level with the right to appeal to a state-level hearing officer or panel.

Families and educators have access to the court system to enforce a right, although typically this option is only available after they have exhausted the available administrative procedures, i.e. gone through a due process hearing.

A process where elected officials through deliberation, negotiation and compromise, write laws that grant rights, establish certain duties or obligations, and create remedies in response to emerging societal needs.