This searchable database contains bibliographic information for literature (research-based and policy/practice) relating to dispute resolution in special education.

CADRE is interested in identifying additional articles and publications to include in this database. If you are aware of other such resources, please send an email to with as much information as possible about the resource (e.g., title, author, source, date), and include a copy of the publication or a URL link, if available.

Adjudicative Remedies for Denials of FAPE under the IDEA

This article analyzes cases in which courts or hearing officers have found that a child has been denied free and appropriate public education. The two most commonly-ordered remedies were reimbursement of tuition, and compensatory education. The author engages six questions: (1) What is the relative...Learn more

ADR: To be or…?

Article analyzes success of mediation, arbitration, summary jury trials in general. Most studies cited did not relate to special ed mediation but might be useful to inform methodology of future studies. Article reports some data on special ed mediations, finding higher correlation with parental...Learn more

After a due process hearing, then what?

The purpose of this article is to discuss issues that can surface after a special education due process hearing. These include discontent, disagreement, and dissatisfaction. The author provides suggestions for school administrators for overcoming these barriers.Learn more

An analysis of judicial outcomes of special education cases.

A review of special-education court cases found that, while school district wins exceeded parent wins in due process hearings and appeals, the margin narrowed through litigation. The most predominant issue in dispute was placement in terms of parents seeking more restrictive settings. The Supreme...Learn more

An Examination of Special Education Due Process Hearings

[Abstract] Due process is a key dispute resolution feature approved by Congress in accordance with the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, whose goal is to facilitate resolution and minimize conflict. Nonetheless, despite 35 years of use, due process has become a difficult emotional and...Learn more

Are published IDEA hearing officer decisions representative?

The authors of this study examined published hearing officer decisions under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to determine whether they were representative of the frequency and outcomes for the larger group consisting of published decisions and the much greater number of unpublished...Learn more