This searchable database contains bibliographic information for literature (research-based and policy/practice) relating to dispute resolution in special education.

CADRE is interested in identifying additional articles and publications to include in this database. If you are aware of other such resources, please send an email to with as much information as possible about the resource (e.g., title, author, source, date), and include a copy of the publication or a URL link, if available.

ADR: To be or…?

Article analyzes success of mediation, arbitration, summary jury trials in general. Most studies cited did not relate to special ed mediation but might be useful to inform methodology of future studies. Article reports some data on special ed mediations, finding higher correlation with parental...Learn more

Lay advocates and parent experts under the IDEA.

The purpose of this article is to expand on the survey data provided in Seven and Zirkel (2002) and to trace the lower court case law between the two decisions related to Arons and the Supreme Court’s ruling in Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy. The interrelationship...Learn more

Parents may self-represent in IDEA cases.

The author presents the results of Winkelman v. Parma City School District. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that parents may represent their children in special education disputes without hiring an attorney.Learn more